French Protestantism, though its appeal increased under persecution, came to acquire a distinctly political character, made all the more obvious by the noble conversions of the s.
From there, it became clear that print could be used for propaganda in the Reformation for particular agendas. After this first stage of the Reformation, following the excommunication of Luther and condemnation of the Reformation by the Pope, the work and writings of John Calvin were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various groups in Switzerland, ScotlandHungary, Germany and elsewhere.
Andreae and Chemnitz prompted a group of Lutheran theologians to draft a document entitled Formula of Concord in and Soon he had risen to prominence in the city.
The stained glass windows, frescoesstatues, paintings and panels retold the stories of the saints and of biblical characters. Luther proposed a revolutionary idea that people can seek salvation without mediation by religious authority. Wesleyan Arminianism is sometimes synonymous with Methodism. The Peace of Augsburg marked an important turning point in the history of Lutheranism.
The spread of Protestantism in the country was aided by its large ethnic German minority, which could understand and translate the writings of Martin Luther.
Renaissance Church[ edit ] In Europe, the Renaissance marked a period of renewed interest in ancient and classical learning. Between andunder Thomas Cromwellthe policy known as the Dissolution of the Monasteries was put into effect. However, he found a more positive place for law within the Christian community than did Luther.
Known as Sociniansafter the name of their founder, they established flourishing congregations, especially in Poland. June Political situation in Germany about Religious situation in Germany and Europe about Officially, Protestantism remained an exclusively German phenomenon that concerned only the Holy Roman Empire through the late s and the s.
Large numbers of Europeans left the Roman Church, including the majority of German speakers the only German speaking areas where the population remained mostly in the Catholic Church were those under the domain or influence of Catholic Austria and Bavaria or the electoral archbishops of Mainz, Cologne, and Trier.
Later waves of colonial expansion such as the Scramble for Africa or the struggle for India by the NetherlandsEnglandFranceGermany and Russia led to Christianization of other native populations across the globe, eclipsing that of the Roman period and making it a truly global religion.
Calvin urged the separation of church and state in Geneva, but he gave ultimate control to the church. Lutheran thinkers utilized categories from Aristotelian philosophy and logic to articulate Christian theology, leading to ever-subtler analyses of argument and counterargument.
There were some notable opponents to the Henrician Reformationsuch as Thomas More and Bishop John Fisherwho were executed for their opposition. The counter-reformation and developed a Second scholasticismwhich was pitted against Lutheran scholasticism. Conflict between Luther and leading theologians led to his gradual rejection of authority of the Church hierarchy.
Unrest due to the Great Schism of Western Christianity — excited wars between princes, uprisings among the peasants, and widespread concern over corruption in the Church. Nine days later, however, Mary and her supporters gained power and Jane was executed.
Martin Luther, by Lucas Cranach the Elder As Luther began developing his own theology, he increasingly came into conflict with Thomistic scholars, most notably Cardinal Cajetan.
By the time the Reformation arrived, the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Margraviate of Moravia both had majority Hussite populations for decades now. As Martin Luther said, "The true rule is this: He exerted a remarkable amount of authority in the city and over the city council, such that he has rather ignominiously been called a "Protestant pope.
Pius V — was known for its focus on halting heresy and worldly abuses within the Church and for its focus on improving popular piety in a determined effort to stem the appeal of Protestantism. Czechhaving lay people receive communion in both kinds bread and wine — that is, in Latin, communio sub utraque speciemarried priests, and eliminating indulgences and the concept of Purgatory.
The Reformation movement within Germany diversified almost immediately, and other reform impulses arose independently of Luther. For more guidance, see Wikipedia: Over the centuries the church, particularly in the office of the papacyhad become deeply involved in the political life of western Europe.
Protestant expansion outside of Europe occurred on a smaller scale through colonization of North America and areas of Africa. One of them was Martin Luther, a Catholic monk, who eventually left the Church and established Lutheranism. He wanted to create the ideal Protestant community in much the same way the Roman Catholic Church established its seat of power in Rome.
However, the king came into conflict with the papacy when he wished to annul his marriage with Catherine of Aragonfor which he needed papal sanction. This had the effect of creating the preconditions for a series of destructive and intermittent conflicts, known as the Wars of Religion.
Called Anabaptiststhey remained a marginal phenomenon in the 16th century but survived—despite fierce persecution—as Mennonites and Hutterites into the 21st century. His translation of the Bible into the language of the people made the Scriptures more accessible, causing a tremendous impact on the church and on German culture.
Reformation and religious war in the 16th century This chapter focuses on the Protestant Reformation- an event that had a tremendous impact on the religious and political structure of Europe, even to the present day.
After the conclusion of the Schmalkald War, Charles V attempted to impose Catholic religious doctrine on the territories that he had defeated.The Reformers of the sixteenth century believed the only path to lasting reformation was the Word of God.
As a result, the Bible again became the ultimate authority. Surrounded by powerful dignitaries of both church and state, the young Augustinian monk was asked whether he would repudiate the books.
Political Changes During the Protestant Reformation The Protestant Reformation was a religious movement that began in with Martin Luther, a German monk who sought to reform the corruption in the Catholic Church. For AP Euro quiz, be able to 1. Analyze the causes of the Protestant Reformation. 2.
Compare and contrast doctrines and practices of Lutheranism and Calvinism with those of Catholicism. 3. Analyze to what extent Renaissance humanism resulted in the Reformation.
4. Compare and contrast English Ref. This summary presents an outline of the Protestant Reformation of the 16 century, the religious schism which split western Christianity.
In the early 16th century, western and central Europe followed the Latin Church, headed by the pope. merging with their political and social aspirations to produce sweeping changes on everything from. Chapter Reformation and religious war in the 16th century This chapter focuses on the Protestant Reformation- an event that had a tremendous impact on the religious and political structure of Europe, even to the present day.
Calvin, Calvinism, and Politics T his year marks the th anniversary of John Calvin’s birth and evidence of the great Protestant Reformer’s influence is all around us years later. Jr.’s The Reformation of Rights: Law, Religion, and Human Rights in Early Modern Calvinism.Download